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  • Bitcoin Mining Explained

    Bitcoin Mining Explained

    Mining Bitcoin is the process of adding transactions to Bitcoin’s public ledger. It is carried out by computers that are spread around the world and they all work together to add transactions to individual blocks on the Bitcoin blockchain, before competing against each other to find and add the new block to the blockchain.

    Anybody can get involved in mining Bitcoin, it just takes a bit of investment, and a bit of understanding of how it works, but it’s not beyond the average person. A bit of trial and error and a few explanatory articles or videos and you should be sorted.

    But for anyone who doesn’t understand it, allow me to explain Bitcoin mining.

    Bitcoin Mining Explained – ELI5 Bitcoin Mining

    Mining is the process of using computing power to process transactions, and secure the network.

    A miner is usually referred to the person or company that mines, but technically, it’s a specialized piece of hardware computing device that has the Bitcoin protocol downloaded onto it.

    BTC transaction

    The mining software listens for transactions that have been sent by users to the network and the mining rig and adds it to the block after checking that the sender has enough bitcoins.

    Miners do this work because they can earn transaction fees paid by users for faster transaction processing, and they get a chance of winning the newly minted bitcoins that are created with every new block.

    Bitcoin Mining Explained – A Deeper Look Into Mining Bitcoin

    It used to be possible to mine Bitcoin with a laptop, but now you really need an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) device is even better. It is possible to mine with a GPU rig, but an ASICs mining rig is much more powerful and will ensure you get the most BTC in return for your processing power.

    The process of Bitcoin mining uses a proof of work algorithm. It’s a system that requires some work from a miner in the shape of a computer processing the data, while using a fair amount of electricity to complete this proof of work.

    There are millions of mining devices carrying out this proof of work, and it has a low probability of success, so a lot of trial and error is required by the mining device for a valid proof of work to be generated.

    Bitcoin Mining Explained

    The proof of work can be explained as follows:

    Miners work together to pick up transactions that are broadcast to the network by someone wanting to send some BTC, and each miner will verify that any person wanting to send a transaction has enough BTC in that address, and once a miner is satisfied the transaction will be added to the block.

    Each block can contain a maximum of 1MB of data, and these blocks are sent to nodes, who have to be in a majority of consensus that all transactions are valid.

    Then the block is sent back to miners who have to then compete against each other to be the first to find the target hash and win the 6.25 BTC block reward.

    The harder a mining rig works, the more chance it has of winning the block reward.

    It’s common knowledge that mining rigs are working out complex mathematical equations, but this technically isn’t correct. The miners are actually trying to guess the target hash, which is made up of a 64-bit hexadecimal number.

    Miners continuously run their machines, which when competing for the block reward are randomly generating as many nonces as possible, as quickly as possible.

    A nonce is short for ‘number only used once,’ and the nonce is the key to generating these 64-bit hexadecimal numbers.

    The first miner whose nonce generates a hash that is less than or equal to the target hash will be the one who ‘finds’ the block’ and wins the 6.25 BTC block reward.

    All the hard work done by the millions of mining devices is basically trial and error, and only one device will get to add the block and win the reward.

    Ledger Nano X - The secure hardware wallet

    It uses a lot of electricity, but this proof of work ensures that every single Bitcoin minted has been worked for.

    Miners also help to secure the network, because the more miners hashing gives the Bitcoin network a higher hashrate, and the higher the hashrate the more powerful the network. At the last count Bitcoin’s hashrate was 114 quintillion hashes per second (EH/s).

    Just for some context, the most powerful supercomputer, Summit, which is the size of two tennis courts, can process 148 quadrillion hashes per second. That’s three extra zeros in case you were wondering.

    How Do I Maximize My Chances of Winning The Block Reward?

    Of all the mining devices that compete for the block reward, only one wins it, so the chances of winning it aren’t on your side.

    Maximize profits

    Get a Powerful Mining Rig

    Buy the best and most powerful ASICs mining rig. At the moment this is the Antminer S19 Pro, which has a hashrate of 110 terrahashes per second (TH/s).

    Compare this to its closest competitor, the MicroBT M30S, which has a hashrate of 90 TH/s, and the S19 Pro give you about a 20% more hashrate and so a better chance of finding the block.

    But your chances of winning the block reward even with a few of the most powerful mining rigs are slim. Remember there are millions of mining devices competing against you, as are many mining farms, which have thousands of mining devices.

    Join a Mining Pool to Maximize Profits

    The best way a solo miner can earn BTC is to join a mining pool. Basically, a mining pool is a group miners who combine their hash power to work together to find the block, and they split the winning BTC among them.

    There are many different mining pools with different fees, so finding “the best mining pool” isn’t as black and white as it sounds. They all charge something and have different payout methods so researching a few is always a good idea to discover which works best for you.

    The average fees are about 2%, but they all offer different ways to suit. And remember I said about having the most powerful mining rig will give you the best chance of finding the block. Well, in a mining pool, the more hashrate you offer the more share you will get from the block rewards.

    Other Things To Consider

    Electricity Costs

    Taking out the cost of your mining rigs, and the mining pool fees, Bitcoin mining profitability comes down to two things: value of Bitcoin and cost of electricity.

    Electricity costs vary throughout the world, so bitcoin mining profitability can depend on where you live.

    For example, the cost of electricity in Germany is about $0.35 KW/h, whereas in Russia it’s $0.06 KW/h, and in Sichuan, China the cost of electricity is around $0.04.

    And there’s never an exact science of the cost of mining a bitcoin because the difficulty of the mathematical equation adjusts every two weeks, and this affects the amount of electricity needed to mint each BTC.

    However, on average miners in Sichuan have a breakeven cost of about $8,206. Obviously, this is one of the cheapest locations for electricity and the reason why many mining farms are located there.

    But the global average cost of electricity brings the cost for mining a bitcoin to about $12,500, meaning it isn’t profitable at the moment for most of the world, at the moment.


    Bitcoin mining is technical and takes some knowledge, especially if you’re wanting to build your own GPU mining rig.

    But it’s easier to get started with an ASICs mining rig, and once you download the software connect with a mining pool, you’re pretty much good to go.

    Bitcoin Mining

    Mining isn’t all about profits to everyone, however. Some do it for the interest, and some do it to help secure the network.

    But most people get into mining to make a profit, and at the moment, it’s not profitable for most of the world. That said, millions of devices are still mining Bitcoin.

    They’re being paid in BTC, and those that can cover the cost of electricity, care not about the USD value today. They are mining because they believe the future value of BTC will far exceed the cost of mining today.

    Bitcoin mining is a burgeoning industry, and whether you’re a multi-million-dollar set up, or you’re doing it solo, anybody can start mining.

    Author: Pablo Clarke


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